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Labour Market Analysis in the Ethiopia and Sudan Migration Corridor for the Project : Free Movement of Persons and Transhumance in the IGAD Region

  • Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Éthiopie

Job Description

Background
With a total population of 221 million and a surface area of 5.2 million square kilometres, the eight states [the IGAD region is comprised of Djibouti, Eritrea (membership suspended), Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda.] make up the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD). The IGAD region is endowed with vast amounts of arable land, natural resources, including substantial oil and gas reserves, as well as alternative energy resources. In spite of these, for many years, the region has been affected by a combination of protracted conflicts, political instability, environmental degradation and food insecurity which lead to poverty and underdevelopment of the region.
The IGAD region is characterized by migratory movements driven by multiple political, economic, and environmental factors, making it difficult to establish clear lines between categories of migrants, refugees and forcibly displaced populations [ILO (2016) “The access of refugees and other forcibly displaced persons to the labour market”, Background paper and draft ILO guiding principles for discussion at the ILO tripartite technical meeting on the access of refugees and other forcibly displaced persons to the labour market. (Geneva, 5–7 July 2016)* *International Labour Office, Geneva.]. The region generates more refugee movements than any other area in the world; at the same time, high levels of cross border trade and temporary flows across borders are indicative of the socio-economic interdependence of these areas. The countries in the region are also simultaneously origin, transit and destination for migrants and refugees, who are increasingly using the same routes. While data on labour migration is scarce, the majority of migratory movements are within the IGAD region or to neighbouring regions. These flows are based in part on historical and cultural ties, as well as current global dynamics of supply and demand for workers.
Cognizant of these, IGAD and its member states have taken steps to properly manage and address the issue of migration in the region. To this end, among other things, IGAD and its member states have developed and adopted comprehensive migration policy framework, IGAD regional Migration Policy Framework, in 2012 and further developed Migration Action plan (MAP). Both the IGAD Regional Migration Policy Framework and the MAP have identified facilitation labour mobility, transhumance and free movement of persons including the possibility for establishment and residence as there strategic priority.
IGAD member states have also made commitments for achieving greater regional integration among member States, which is expected to bring about the expansion of trade, economics of scale and greater foreign direct investment, all contributing to accelerated economic growth. In 2013, the Summit of the IGAD Heads of State and Government adopted a Minimum Integration Plan to serve as a road map for regional integration, in which the free movement of persons is a key pillar. To this end, IGAD member states have entered into substantive discussions and consultations on draft free movement protocol.
In order to support IGAD and its member states towards free movement of persons and transhumance in the region, the ILO is implementing a three years technical cooperation project titled “Free Movement of Persons and Transhumance in the IGAD Region: Improving Opportunities for Regular Labour Mobility”. The project is being implemented in collaboration with the IGAD and its member states with the financial support of the European Union. The overall objective of the project is to improve opportunities for regulated labour mobility and decent work within the IGAD member states through the development of models of intervention, in the broader context of free movement of persons and labour mobility in the region. In the long-term, the project is expected to extend decent work opportunities to current and potential migrants within the region, as well as contribute to regional integration, strengthen the links between economic growth, climate change and job creation, and enhance the social and economic integration of migrants.
The project has two major components: knowledge-building and operational implementation. The knowledge-building component seeks to deepen understanding of migration and labour market dynamics in the region, including the constraints and opportunities for employment creation and causes of skills shortages. The operational component aims to pilot interventions in the Ethiopia-Sudan migration corridor and enhance employment and decent work opportunities across the Ethiopia – Sudan migration corridor.
As part of the knowledge generation component of the project, the ILO wants to recruit the service of a qualified consultant, individual or firm, who can undertake labour market analysis to understand the overall economic, labour, employment and migration dynamics in Ethiopia and Sudan in general and migration prone areas, both as a source, transit and destination along the Ethiopia – Sudan migration corridor. Therefore, the assessment is expected to provide national outlook as well as a regional outlook with a particular focus on migration prone cities, town, and districts which are either a source, transit or destination for migrants along the Ethiopia – Sudan migration route. Specific locations of interventions will be to be decided during the inception phase of the assessment through literature review and further consultation with IGAD and responsible government counter parts in Ethiopia and Sudan.
Objective
The overall objective of the assignment is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the economic, employment, labour and migration dynamics in Ethiopia and Sudan and further explore casual chains, identify opportunities, challenges and recommend possible strategies for improving productive employment in Ethiopia and Sudan migration corridor. To this end, the study is expected to critically analyse the demand and supply side of the labour market as well as intermediaries and institutional and policy frameworks governing labour, labour mobility and employment in the two countries. More precisely, the labour market analysis, among other things, is expected to:
• Examine and analyse the supply side / human resource base/ of both Ethiopia and Sudan by taking into account the growth of the labour force and its characteristics. To mention a few, the analysis should take into account demographic trends, education and health attainments, poverty levels and employment conditions such as income, employability, formal vs informal employment, underemployment, unemployment, sector composition/ segregation, productivity, working poor and so on both for nationals and migrants;
• Examine and analyse the demand side focusing on rate and quality of economic growth from an employment perspective. To this end, the study should explore current and potential demand for skills in national and regional economies and further identify sectors for potential growth and employment creation in Ethiopia and Sudan and along the migration corridor between the two countries, taking into account climate monitoring and predictions and the potential for green growth;
• Examine equity aspects of the demand and supply side of the labour market described above. In this regards, the assessment needs to critically review macroeconomic policy frameworks, development plans, national adaptation plans (NAPAs), institutional arrangements and factors that facilitate or hinder employment creation, labour mobility and enhancing equality and inclusiveness of important aspects labour market particularly access to education, health, capital/finance, land and employment conditions for nationals and migrants;
• Identify potentials, opportunities, challenges and threats for enhancing productive employment at national level and improving regular labour mobility and economic integration in the Ethiopia – Sudan migration corridor;
• Provide a comprehensive analysis of existing employment services systems, process, capacity needs and their efficiency and effectiveness in supporting employment promotion and labour mobility skills anticipation, skills matching and provision of other public employment services;
• Provide strategic recommendations to improve productive and decent employment opportunities for nationals and migrants in both countries within the framework of the IGAD regional migration policy framework and draft free movement protocol.
Methodology
The labour market assessment should use both primary and secondary sources. As primary sources of data, among other things, the consultant needs to use both quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis tools which may include
• Survey: the consultant should envisage to conduct a reasonable sample size of field surveys (couple of hundreds) that could provide a nuanced picture about the labour market dynamics using ILO’s standard questioner which could be adopted to the local context;
• Focus group discussions: the consultant should also conduct focus groups discussions with various stakeholders and potential beneficiaries of the project in order to get qualitative information and triangulate facts and figures
• The consult also needs to conduct Key informant interviews with government officials, academicians and representatives of think thanks, employers and workers in Ethiopia and Sudan.
As a secondary source of data the consultant is also expected to conduct, among others,
• Desk review: the consultant is expected review existing literature in the area of employment creation, migration, food security, mobility, climate change and others.
• In addition, the consultant is also expected to review existing data sources, national statistics and make analysis/ tabulation of important indicators on labour, employment, climate and migration in Ethiopia and Sudan.
The consultant will be responsible for developing appropriate data collection tools and gathering reliable data in both countries to meet the objectives of the study. The consultant could also include other methodologies and tools to enhance the quality of the report in consultation with ILO. At the end, the consultant is expected to write analytical report which will be validated and endorsed in a tripartite plus regional workshop to the satisfaction of the ILO.
Deliverables/outputs
• Inception Report: the consultant is expected to produce an inception report explaining his/her understanding of the ToR, detailed methodology and research tools, draft outline of the report and key resources/materials and data sources to be examined in the assessment;
• First Draft Report: the consultant will submit the first draft to the ILO for comments and inputs. The ILO will share the first draft to key stakeholders and partners for their inputs and consolidate the same;
• Second Draft Report: the consultant shall incorporate initial comments from ILO and major partners and submit the second draft;
• Presentation: once the second draft is up to the standard and expectation of the ILO, the consultant will present the second draft in a regional tripartite (plus) validation workshop;
• Final Report: the consultant shall incorporate the comments from the validation workshop and submit the final report one week after the validation workshop.
Minimum Qualifications
• The lead researcher / team leader is to have a post graduate degree in Business related disciplines, Development Studies or Economics, with a minimum of ten (10) years of demonstrated experience in conducting and managing multi country research particularly in the field of labour, employment and market assessments, or socio economic assessments;
• Have extensive theoretical and practical experience on labour market assessment and employment diagnostics methodologies and tools;
• Experience in working with UN agencies, multi-lateral, local and international organizations, government departments, and humanitarian/development actors in the field of employment and migration as well as exposure to work on climate change impacts and/or natural disasters would be an added asset.
• Good drafting skills, ability to communicate effectively both orally and in writing, and ability to clarify information; good computer application skills; good organizational skills; as well as ability to deal with people with tact and diplomacy.
• Have a thorough knowledge and understanding about the socio economic conditions and migration dynamics in the horn of Africa in general and Ethiopia and Sudan in particular;
• Have the competency and experience in working with and for people of different cultural backgrounds and nationalities.
• Have excellent academic and research qualifications.
Ownership and Disclosure of Data/Information
All documents, project data and information obtained in connection with this assignment shall be treated confidential and shall not without the written approval of ILO be made available to any third party. All the documents provided by ILO, both soft and hard copies are to be returned to ILO upon completion of the assignment. All documentation and reports written as, and as a result of this assignment or otherwise related to it shall remain the property of ILO. No part of the report shall be reproduced except with the prior, expressed and specific written permission of ILO.

How to Apply

Interested applicants should submit their technical and financial proposal as well as other supporting documents via email to Amare Negash at negasha@ilo.org.

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